Our research group has developed a unique, validated computational framework, which combines geometry modeling, aerodynamics, structural mechanics, and fluid–structure interaction (FSI) analysis of full-scale wind turbines. The framework is implemented in large-scale high-performance computing environment. We continue to extend our interests to several important topics, including
wind turbine blade design and optimization, rotor–tower interaction, tower design and modelinguncertainty quantificationatmospheric boundary layer, wake, wind shear and turbulence effects, etc. We would love to work with experimentalists to improve the fidelity of our computational framework and better bridge theory and the real world. Below are some samples of our research:

Fluid–Structure Interaction Analysis of Wind Turbines

This work presents a collection of numerical methods combined into a single framework for aerodynamic and FSI modeling and simulation of wind turbines. The numerical formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations of incompressible flows is validated using experimental data for a full-scale wind turbine. The structural modeling of wind turbine blades makes use of the Kirchhoff–Love thin shell theory discretized with isogeometric analysis (IGA). The coupled FSI formulation accommodates non-matching fluid-structure interface discretizations. The challenges of fluid–structural coupling and the handling of the computational mesh in the presence of large rotational motions is discussed, and the FSI computations of a 5 MW offshore baseline wind turbine are shown.

References - NREL 5MW

  1. Hsu M-C, Bazilevs Y* (2012) Fluid–structure interaction modeling of wind turbines: simulating the full machineComputational Mechanics, 50:821–833(Web of Science Highly Cited Paper)
  2. Bazilevs Y*, Hsu M-C, Scott MA (2012) Isogeometric fluid–structure interaction analysis with emphasis on non-matching discretizations, and with application to wind turbinesComputer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 249-252:28–41(Web of Science Highly Cited Paper)
  3. Hsu M-C*, Akkerman I, Bazilevs Y (2011) High-performance computing of wind turbine aerodynamics using isogeometric analysisComputers & Fluids, 49:93–100.
  4. Bazilevs Y*, Hsu M-C, Kiendl J, Wüchner R, Bletzinger K-U (2011) 3D simulation of wind turbine rotors at full scale. Part II: Fluid-structure interaction modeling with composite bladesInternational Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 65:236–253(Web of Science Highly Cited Paper)
  5. Bazilevs Y*, Hsu M-C, Akkerman I, Wright S, Takizawa K, Henicke B, Spielman T, Tezduyar TE (2011) 3D simulation of wind turbine rotors at full scale. Part I: Geometry modeling and aerodynamicsInternational Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 65:207–235(Most cited articles) (Web of Science Highly Cited Paper)

Finite Element Simulation of Wind Turbine Aerodynamics: Validation Study using NREL Phase VI Experiment

The aerodynamics simulations are performed using the ALE–VMS formulation augmented with weakly enforced essential boundary conditions. The rotor-only simulations are performed for a wide range of wind conditions and the computational results compare favorably with the experimental findings in all cases. The sliding interface method is adopted for the simulation of the full wind turbine configuration. The full-wind-turbine simulations capture the blade–tower interaction effect, and the results of these simulations are also in good agreement with the experimental data.

Left: The predicted low-speed shaft torque at different wind speed. The simulation results are compared with the NREL experimental data with good agreement. Right: The single-blade aerodynamic torque over a full revolution. The tower effect is clearly pronounced and the result is in very good agreement with the experimental data.

References - NREL Phase VI

  1. Hsu M-C, Akkerman I, Bazilevs Y* (2014) Finite element simulation of wind turbine aerodynamics: Validation study using NREL Phase VI experimentWind Energy, 17:461–481(Web of Science Highly Cited Paper)
  2. Hsu M-C, Akkerman I, Bazilevs Y* (2012) Wind turbine aerodynamics using ALE–VMS: Validation and the role of weakly enforced boundary conditionsComputational Mechanics, 50:499–511(Web of Science Highly Cited Paper)

References - Others

  1. Herrema AJ*, Kiendl J, Hsu M-C (2018) A framework for isogeometric-analysis-based design and optimization of wind turbine blade structuresWind Energy, accepted. doi:10.1002/we.2276
  2. Herrema AJ, Wiese NM, Darling CN, Ganapathysubramanian B, Krishnamurthy A, Hsu M-C* (2017) A framework for parametric design optimization using isogeometric analysisComputer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 316:944–965.
  3. Korobenko A, Hsu M-C, Akkerman I, Tippmann J, Bazilevs Y* (2013) Structural mechanics modeling and FSI simulation of wind turbinesMathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 23:249–272(Web of Science Highly Cited Paper)
© Ming-Chen Hsu 2020